Articles tagged with: Project Manager

7. Multi-Company Engineering Studies Can Work Well…or Not

Most, if not all, advanced studies these days rely on engineering teams comprised of participants from different consulting firms or from different regional offices of the same company.   This provides the opportunity to use specific expert consultants for different parts of the study, rather than simply pulling in a generalised team from a single firm.   My recollection is that many years ago large consultants would try to do the whole job in-house but that has changed and the multi-company approach seems to be the norm. This is partly being driven by the clients who wish to use specific consultants that they are familiar with and may have existing relationships.
In some instances, larger firms will still make the argument they can take on more of the project scope themselves.  However be careful in such offers because one can end up with less qualified teams seconded from their offices that are not very busy.  Possibly you won’t get the best; you may simply get who is available.
In many multi-company studies, few of the team members will have ever worked together before and so it’s a team building exercise right from the start.   I have had both good and bad experiences with these types of engineering teams.  Some of them work very well while others floundered.  Even if using different offices of the same company, things may not go as planned since even those people may not have worked together before.
To have a successful study team, two key factors in my experience are; (1) the competency of the Study Manager; (2) the amount (and style) of team communication.
The Study Manager is vital to keeping everyone working on the same page and making sure timelines are met. (I will have a future posting on the Study Manager topic).  A single team member delaying their own deliverables can then delay others on the team.  Some consultants have other projects underway and unexpected delays in one study may cause them shift onto their other study and then it sometimes is difficult to bring them back onto this project at a moment’s notice.
The Study Manager must also ensure that everyone understands what their deliverables are.   Generally this is done using a “Responsibility Matrix”, but these can sometimes be too general in nature.   Where cost estimation is involved, the Responsibility Matrix should be supported by a Work Breakdown Structure (“WBS”) where the costing responsibilities are assigned.  Given that contentious parts of many studies are the capital and operating cost estimates, I personally view the WBS equally as important as the Responsibility Matrix.  (I will have a future posting on the WBS topic).
Team communication is vital and there are different ways to do this.   Weekly or bi-weekly conference calls work well but these need to be carefully managed.  With a large team on a conference call, there is a fine line between getting into too much technical detail on certain topics versus not enough detail or members won’t understand the nuances of the project.   On some studies I have seen a weekly call restricted to one-hour long and then everyone runs off until next week’s call.  At the end of such conference calls, one has a feeling of it being incomplete. Perhaps people were not clear on something but hesitated to ask become the one-hour time is up.   In such cases it is important for the relevant parties to continue on or have a separate call.  Make it apparent to everyone that they should speak up if something is not clear to them, regardless of the time remaining.
My bottom line is that multi-company teams will work fine as long as the Study Manager is capable of doing his job in keeping the team organized.  It is not a simple task, not everyone can do it really well, but everyone (client and the other consultants) appreciate working under a good study manager.
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4. Four Study Stages (Concept to Feasibility) – Which Should We Do?

Over my career I have been involved in various types of front end mine studies, ranging from desktop conceptual to definitive feasibility.    Each type of study has a different purpose and therefore requires a different level of input, effort, and cost.  I have sat in on a few junior mining management discussions regarding whether they should be doing a PEA or a Pre-Feasibility Study, or Feasibility instead of a Pre-Feasibility Study.    Everyone at the meeting had their opinion on how to proceed based on their own reasoning.   Ultimately there is no absolute correct answer but there likely is one path that is better than the others.  It depends on the short term and long term objectives of the company, the quality and quantity of data on hand, and the funding available.
In my opinion there are four basic levels of study, which are listed below.  My intention is not to provide a detailed comparison between the different studies although such matrix tables are readily available (contact me for an a copy of the table excerpt shown below).

Four Studies Table

  1. Desktop or Conceptual Study
This would likely be an in-house study, non-43-101 compliant, simply used to test the project and let management know where the project may go (see a previous article at the link “Early Stage “What-if” Economic Analysis – How Useful Is It?”.    I always recommend doing one of these studies.  It doesn’t take much time and is not made public so the inputs can be high level or simply guesses.  This type of study helps to frame the project for management.
  1. Preliminary Economic Assessment (“PEA”)
The PEA is 43-101 compliant and would present the first snap shot of the project scope, size, and potential economics to investors.  Generally the resource may still be uncertain (inferred classification), capital and operating costs are approximate and may be on the low side since not all the operational or environmental issues are known at this time.   Please do not treat the PEA as a feasibility study.
I also recommend not announcing or undertaking a PEA until you are confident in what the outcome of the PEA will be.   A reasonably thorough desktop study done beforehand will let one know if the economics for the PEA will be good or bad.  I have seen situations where companies have announced the timing for completing a PEA and then during the study, things were not working out as well as planned.  The economics were looking poorer than hoped and so a lot of re-scoping of the project was required.  The PEA was delayed and shareholders and financial analysts were not impressed with the delay.
The PEA can be used to evaluate different development options for the project (i.e. open pit, underground, small capacity, large capacity, heap leach, CIL, etc.) .  However the accuracy of the PEA is limited and therefore I suggest that the PEA option analysis only be used to discard obviously sub-optimal scenarios.  Options that are within a +/-30% range of each other many be too close to discard at this stage.
  1. Pre-Feasibility Study (“PFS”)
The PFS will be developed using only measured and indicated resources (not inferred) and the costing accuracy will be better than a PEA.  Therefore the PFS is a good time to definitively evaluate the remaining development options and then make the decision on the single path forward.     More data will be required for the PFS, possibly including a comprehensive infill drilling program to upgrade the resource classification.  Many companies, especially those with smaller projects could skip the PFS stage entirely and move directly to Feasibility.  I cannot disagree with this approach if the project is fairly simple and had a well defined scope at the PEA stage.
  1. Feasibility Study (“FS”)
The Feasibility Study is the final stage study prior to making a production decision.  The feasibility study should preferably be done on a single project scope.  Try to avoid more option analysis at this stage.
Small companies must be careful entering the FS stage since once the FS is complete, shareholders will be waiting to hear about the production decision.  If the company had only intended to sell the project with no intention of going into production, they have now hit a wall.  What do they do next?   Sometimes management feels that a FS may be needed to better sell the  project, however I am not sure that is concern is real.  Many potential buyers would do their own in-house due diligence and possible design studies and likely information from a PFS would be sufficient to tell them what they need to know.  A well advanced Environmental-Socio Impact Assessment program may give as much or more comfort to them than a Feasibility Study would.
My bottom line recommendation is that there is no right answer as to what study is required at what point in time.  Different paths can be followed but remember that consideration must be given to the future and what is in store for the company after the study is completed.   Also what is the best use of shareholder money?  Company management may see pressure applied from retail shareholders, majority shareholders, financial analysts, and the board of directors, and management must decide what path is in the best interests of the company.
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