56. Does the Mining Industry Employ Interns?

employing interns
Over the couple of years I have been working on a side project in the tech industry.   One of the things that struck me was the hiring of interns, both paid and unpaid.
I’m now aware that interns are being hired in other industries such as legal, politics, journalism, and marketing.  However I have never come across the use of interns within the mining industry.
Intern

Why hire interns?

I was recently talking to a marketing consultant about tips on tech marketing and one of the suggestions she made was to hire an unpaid intern.  They would do much of the legwork of finding sales contacts and establishing contact with them.
My first question was why would anyone work for free?  There are  three main reasons:
  1. For school credit; as part of a course credit in college or university where an internship is part of the program requirement.
  2. For experience; it is difficult to get a real job without experience and so the internship teaches, builds  experience, and establishes a portfolio of work.
  3. Networking; building up industry connections can possibly lead to permanent work down the road.

Its the right thing to do

At first I was taken aback at the thought of asking someone to work for my company for free.  Are we that cheap?
Thinking about it further, if you are paying someone a salary the expectation is that they should be somewhat skilled at their job.  I have come to realize that the internship may actually be a win-win for both parties.

Its a win-win

The company gets a chance to learn about potential employees and also gets productive service from them.
The intern gains employment experience and learns about the realities of the business world.  Students have already paid the schools to teach them.  Now businesses can help teach them more, but at no cost.   It’s a win-win for both.
So how did our unpaid intern search go?  We posted a free ad on indeed.ca.  Within 72 hours we received over ten replies, of which only 2-3 came close to meeting the actual qualifications.  Some of the applicants had no relevant experience at all.
Possibly in today’s job market people are willing to work for free on the hope that they can get some experience, which will hopefully lead to a permanent job in the future.

Conclusion

The question is whether the mining industry can make use of interns in the areas of geology, engineering, marketing, presentation graphics, websites, etc?
There may be many students or recent grads looking for an opportunity and are willing to do whatever it takes to  advance their careers.
Even if your operating budget can’t afford the cost of hiring another person, you may still have a chance to help out someone new in the industry.
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54. Windshieldink – New Smartphone App

license plate messaging
During the recent years, the slowdown in the mining industry has given me time to pursue a few side interests. Writing this mining blog was one of those interests.
The other was developing a new smartphone mobile app called Windshieldink. The tag line is “it’s the new way to leave a note on a windshield”. The website is Windshieldink.com
Windshieldink image

Here is an overview

Windshieldink’s messaging platform allows anyone to anonymously assign an email address to a license plate.  Others can send messages to those vehicle owners  using the mobile app and the vehicle license plate number.
Registering a license plate with Windshieldink is free. The app provides users the options of receiving their messages via e-mail and phone texts. You also have the option of receiving app push notifications, or attaching contact information, or attaching a GPS location within the message.  There is also an in-app chat functionality.

Stats Canada reported 23.9 million motor vehicle registrations in 2015

Based on personal experience, the desire to be reachable in an emergency via my license plate number was recognized as far back as the mid-1990’s.  Its becoming even more recognized as new vehicles, driverless vehicles come on to our the roadways daily.
Windshieldink logoPrimarily businesses, such as fleet operators, delivery services, city maintenance services can register thousands of their plates and assign a safety office email or dispatcher to each.  The public can then provide feedback on problem drivers.
The Windshieldink messaging platform will function globally.  However our primary focus is North America due to our limited marketing capacity.

Its Free!

The app is now free to download from Google Play Store and App Store and hopefully simple to use.   Learning how the tech world operates, has been an eye opener for someone who has working in the mining industry their entire life.
Here is a video on how the app works.

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51. Pre-Concentration – Savior or Not?

pre-concentration
Can pre-concentration become a savior for the mining industry by lowering metal production costs?
Pre-concentration is a way of reducing the quantity of ore requiring higher cost downstream processing, i.e. grinding in particular.  One can attain significant cost savings in energy consumption and operating expenses by using a low cost method to pre-concentrate minerals into a smaller volume. A previous blog “Remote Sensing of Ore Grades” discussed one new pre-concentration method currently under development.

Pre-concentration isn’t new

Pre-concentration has been around for many years.  However the techniques available are generally limited.  Hence many ore types are not amenable to it..unfortunately.
The main methods available are:
Ore sorting, which can be done using automated optical, electrical, or magnetic susceptibility sensors to separate ore particles from waste. The different sensors can rely on colour recognition, near infrared radiation, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray transmission, radiometric, or electromagnetic properties. The sensors can determine if a particle contains valuable mineral or waste, thereby sending a signal to activate air jets to deflect material into ore and waste bins.
Density separation, or specific gravity differences are another property that some pre-concentration methods can use. Gravity based systems such as dense media separation (DMS), jigs, or centrifugal concentrators are currently in commercial production.
Scrubbing, another very simple pre-concentration method is scrubbing, whereby simply separating fines or coatings may remove deleterious materials prior to final processing.

 BenefitsJig Plant 1

Pre-concentration provides several benefits:
  • If done underground or at satellite mine site, the ore hoisting or ore transport costs can be reduced.
  • If the pre-concentration rejects can be used as mine backfill, this can reduce backfilling costs.
  • Processing of higher grade pre-concentrated mill feed can reduce energy costs and ultimately reduce the cash cost of metal produced.
  • Grinding costs can be reduced if waste particles are harder than the ore particles and they can be scalped.
  • Minimizing waste through the process plant will reduce the quantity of fine tailings that must be disposed of.
  • Lowering operating costs may potentially allow lowering of the cutoff grade and increasing mineral reserves.
  • Higher head grades would increase metal production without needing an increase in plant throughput.

Limited ore types are suited for pre-concentration

Not all ore types are amenable to pre-concentration and therefore a rigorous testing program is required. In most cases a pre-con method is relatively obvious to metallurgical engineers but testing is still required to measure performance.
Testing is required to determine the waste rejection achieved without incurring significant ore loss. Generally one can produce a higher quality product if one is willing to reject more ore with the waste.  It becomes a trade-off of metal recovery versus processing cost savings.
Fine particles generated in the crushing stage might need to bypass the pre-con circuit. If this bypassed material is sent to downstream processing circuits, one may need to examine crushers that minimize fines to avoid excessive material bypassing the pre-con circuit.

Reject waste or reject ore?

One must decide if the pre-con system should reject waste particles from the material stream or reject ore particles from the stream.  The overall metal recovery and product quality may be impacted depending on which approach is used.

Conclusion

The bottom line is that the mining industry is continually looking for ways to improve costs and pre-concentration may be a great way to do this.   Every process plant design should take a look at it to see if is feasible for their ore type.
While the existing pre-concentration methods have their limitations, future technologies may bring in more ways to pre-concentrate.  This is probably an area where research dollars would be well spent.
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49. Remote Sensing of Ore Grades

mining automation
Update:  This blog was originally written in March 2016 and has been updated Jan 2019. 
The mining industry must continually find ways to improve and modernize. The most likely avenue for improvement will be using new technologies as they become available.
One of the players on the scene is a start-up company called “MineSense Technologies Ltd.”  They are a British Columbia company looking to improve ore extraction and recovery processes based on the sensing and sorting of low-grade ore. They hope their technology will improve mine economics by reducing the consumption of energy, water, and reagents.

Minesense

Having first written about this in 2016, its still not entirely clear to me how developed their technology is in 2019. Thus far they appear to be secretive with respect to their testing and performance results.  Certainly they are able to raise financing to keep them going.

Sensors are the answer

It appears MineSense is relying on a combination of ground-penetrating sensors with other technology in order to measure and report the grade of ore in real time.
Existing ore sorting technologies seem to focus on distinguishing mineralized material from gangue, but MineSense seems to be targeting using actual ore grades as the defining factor.
They hope to be able to eventually integrate their technology into equipment such as shovels, scooptrams, conveyors, feeders, and transfer chutes.
Their proprietary technology is based on High Frequency Electromagnetic Spectrometry and High Speed X-Ray Fluorescence sensors. Reportedly these can deliver better sensitivity and operate at high speeds. They plan to develop two distinct product lines; shovel-based systems; and conveyor belt-based systems.

ShovelSense

Their ShovelSense system would be a real-time mineral telemetry and decision system and used for measurement of ore quality while material is being scooped into the dipper, then reporting the ore quality and type to the grade control/ore routing system, and then enabling real-time online ore/waste dispatch decisions. Additional features may include tramp metal and missing tooth detection.  Sounds like a good idea, albeit some practical operating issues will need to be overcome.

BeltSense

Their belt conveyor systems (BeltSense) will use high-speed multi-channel sensing to characterize conveyed ore and waste in real time, allowing grades and tonnages to be reported and allowing ore to be diverted to correct destinations based on the sensor responses.
MineSense say that pilot units are operating at 20 tph and systems of up to 2000 tph are in the development stages.
Ore sorting has been around for a long time, with companies like Tomra, but possibly the MineSense technical approach will be different.

Conclusion

The bottom line is that we should all keep an eye on the continued development of this technology, especially as MineSense completes larger field trials.  Hopefully they will soon share results with industry since it will be critical for operators to see more actual case study data on their website.
I recognize that developing new technology will have its successes and failures. Setbacks should not be viewed as failure since innovation takes time. Hopefully after fine tuning their technology they can advance to the commercialization stage.
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48. Online Collaboration and Management Tools (Part 2)

networking
This blog is the Part 2 continuation of a prior post regarding collaboration software tools that mining teams should consider.   Here are a few more ideas I’d like to share, having found that these are great to have in your toolbox.
G-suite and miningG-Suite: is the family of Google Drive, Docs, Sheets, and Slides online services.
Group collaboration can be frustrating using spreadsheets or text documents.  We typically end up with different versions of the same document floating around.  No one is sure whether they are editing the most recent version or which version they should be editing.
With G-Suite (Google Sheets and Google Docs) you can create online spreadsheets and documents and allow multiple team members to review and edit them in real-time online at the same time.
Writing reports gets simpler since there is only one working version of the document. A “track changes” option is there (called “Suggesting”) and everyone can see the edits as they are being made. No more asking “who has the most current version?”  This type of collaborative editing is also great for Design Criteria Documents that are regularly being updated by different team members.
I have used both DropBox and Google Drive, but my preference is using Google Drive since it integrates well with G-Suite.

Foxit Reader:  This is an alternative to Adobe Reader and can be used for reviewing PDF documents, whether text documents or drawings.
Foxit provides great editing and commenting tools like highlighting text, adding comments, drawing lines and boxes, adding comment balloons, cut & pasting images into the PDF file, and then saving the commented version.
For the most part I have stopped using Adobe Reader and have now switched over to Foxit due to commenting capability that it provides.
Google Hangouts:  This is an online and mobile application for team conference calling.  It allows screen sharing, online group video conversations, sends out meeting reminders, and it will call participants at the require time.
While Hangouts has many of the same features as Skype, it integrates with Google Calendar and Gmail.   Most of the tech world uses Hangouts instead of Skype, but I’m not sure if the mining industry is ready to move away from Skype.
An honorable mention for video-conferencing goes to Zoom. Some tech developers have been switching to Zoom, they feel it has more capabilities than Hangouts and better video resolution. I have never used it however.

Other Software

Those are a few of the software tools that I have found useful and so now you’re probably wondering “what else is out there for me?” The website The Freelance Stack lists many of different tools that exist. Check them out and some of the others may be of value to you. :

Geology & Mining Software

One of the standard marketing approaches used by tech software is to provide a fully functional product for free and then charge money to access the enhanced features. The goal is to get future users familiarized and trained on the product.  They hope that they will get hooked on the product and decide to upgrade their plan for the full product suite.
I’m not sure whether any geology or mining software  is available for free in a fully functional format with optional upgrading. By functional, I don’t mean simply providing a “viewer” to view the work of others or a 30-day free trial period.  I mean actual software that provides some useful capability for free in order to get you hooked. Please let us know if this software marketing approach exists in the mining industry.

Conclusion

The bottom line is that there is a lot of interesting collaboration software out there.  Its readily available, much of it is free, and can make managing your remote project teams easier. Just because the software is used by the tech industry and millennials, don’t assume it won’t have a benefit to the mining industry.
The downside is the need to train and learn the new software, and the mining industry may not be so receptive to that.
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47. Online Collaboration and Management Tools (Part 1)

networking
Update:  This blog was originally published March 2016.   However like all things, the online world keeps evolving. So I have updated Part 1 and Part 2 of the blog (Dec 2018).  I added new software suggestions and removed some.
As part of a side business, I have been working alongside a team of software developers. It has been a good learning experience for me to see how the tech world does things compared to how the mining industry likes to work. We see a lot of private equity flowing into tech and less into mining, so they must be doing something right.
The tech start-up industry has developed its own set of jargon.  Common terms are agile management, lean start-ups, disruption, minimum viable products, pings, fail fast, and sprints.
Some of their work approaches do not make sense for the mining industry where one doesn’t have the luxury of using trial-and-error and customer feedback to help complete a project.
For software, the attitude is get it out the door fast and your customers will then tell you what fixes are needed. In mining you want to get it right the first time.  Having said that, some mining people will say they have seen 43-101 technical reports that follow the “wait for customer feedback” model.
Now where the tech industry can provide us with some guidance is in the implementation of collaboration tools. It is becoming more common for software developers to work remotely.  To collaborate they use the technology available or they develop new technology to meet their needs.  Mining teams are also working more and more from remote offices these days.

What are the collaboration software available

The following is a partial list (Part 1) of free software tools that I have used, mainly because I was forced to. With some hesitation at first, I have subsequently found the tools easy to use.  Many of them can definitely be applied in the mining industry with remote and diverse study teams.
There are a lot more tech tools out there but my list includes some that I have personally used. Most of these are free to begin with, and enhanced features are available at a minimal cost. However even the free versions are functional and can be used to build a comfort level in the team. Most of them provide both web based access and mobile access so even when you’re on the road you can still use them and contribute.

Trello

Trello: If you want to create a “to-do list” or task list for your team, this is the software to use. Imagine a bunch of  post-it notes that you can place under different categories, assign persons to each note, attached a file to the note if you wish, and then have back and forth discussions within each note.   Once a task is done, just drag the note to another category (e.g. “In Progress”, “Completed”). Anyone on the team can be invited to the Trello Board and can collaborate. See the image below for an example Trello screenshot.   This is a great tool for helping to manage tasks in a mining study.

 

Trello screenshot

Slack

Slack: If you want to maintain a running dialogue of group discussions that invited team members can follow and join in on, then Slack (a Canadian company) is for you. It can replace the long confusing back-and-forth emails that we commonly see.  If someone forgets to “reply all” the rest of the team is out of the loop. See the image below for an example Slack screenshot. It’s great for discussions among the team.  You can also have private one-on-one discussions or wide open team discussions.  You can attach files too and you can get pinged when something new is added. It provides permanent record of conversations and decisions.

Slack Screenshot

Mural

Mural:  Mural is a recent innovation to solve the issue that remote teams have of not sitting in the same room and writing ideas down on a whiteboard.   For that last while, there was no good white boarding software out there but I understand that Mural fills the gap.  i have not used it so cannot vouch for its simplicity, however it seems to be catching with the tech developers.  The screenshot below shows the type of inter-actions possble.  Each person has access to write on the whiteboard.
Basecamp: is similar program to Slack that incorporates features from both the above and some people swear by this tool. I have not personally used it so cannot vouch for it, but some say it is very good.

Conclusion

The bottom line is that there is a lot of good stuff out there, readily available, much of it free, and can facilitate collaboration among your teams. Just because its tech industry related, don’t assume it wouldn’t have an application in the mining world.  As millennials enter the mining workforce, these tools may gain a foothold.
To read about even more collaborative tools, take a look at Part 2 of this blog.  Comments on any of the discussions or software are appreciated.
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40. Disrupt Mining Challenge – Watch for it at PDAC

Update:  This blog was originally written in January 2016, and has been updated for Jan 2018.

Gold Rush Challenge

In 2016 at PDAC, Integra Gold held the first the Gold Rush Challenge.  It was an innovative event for the mining industry.  It was following along on the footsteps of the Goldcorp Challenge held way back in 2001.
The Integra Gold Rush Challenge was a contest whereby entrants were given access to a geological database and asked to prepare submissions presenting the best prospects for the next gold discovery on the Lamaque property.  Winners would get a share of the C$1 million prize.
Integra Gold hoped that the contest would expand their access to quality people outside their company enabling their own in-house geological team to focus on other exploration projects.   In total 1,342 entrants from over 83 countries registered to compete in the challenge.  A team from SGS Canada won the prize.

Then Disrupt Mining came along

In 2017, its seem the next step in the innovation process was the creation of Disrupt Mining sponsoerd by Goldcorp.  Companies and teams developing new technologies would compete to win a $1 million prize.
In 2017, the co-winning teams were from Cementation Canada (new hoisting technology) and Kore Geosystems (data analystics for decision making).
In 2018, the winning team was from Acoustic Zoom, an new way to undertake seismic surveys.

The 2019 winners will be announced at PDAC.  The entry deadline has passed so you’re out of luck for this year.

Conclusion

At PDAC there are always a lot of things to do, from networking, visiting booths, presentations, trade shows, gala dinners, and hospitality suites.
Now Disrupt Mining brings another event for your PDAC agenda.
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33. Blogging and Spam

blogs and spam
This is a short non-mining topic but it’s something I found interesting when writing a WordPress blog.  Spam and bots are everywhere.
I started this little WordPress blog a few years ago and enable the readers to comment on each blog as well as subscribe.  Well lo and behold it didn’t take long for the spam to start arriving.  Both the commenting and subscribing are affected

Commenting Spam

The image below shows the typical spam that I would get in the comments section.  Even though commenting requires one to enter an email address in order to post, this type of spam still sjows up.  It took a few weeks for it to start but at times I would be getting 5 to 10 of these spammed “comments” each day.  It’s not like my blog has a lot of followers or comments, but it still ended up a target to the bots or spiders or whatever else that is roaming around the web.

Example WordPress blog spam

The first solution is to turn off automatic commenting to prevent comments from being posted immediately on-line.  I switched to moderated comments whereby each comment needs to be manually approved by the administrator before being posted live.  However after being continually asked to approve a lot of pending spam comments, it got tiresome.  The next solution was implementing the CAPTCHA (see image below).

 

Example of a Captcha

WordPress has various plug-ins designed to limit spam.  One of the simpler solutions is to add a “captcha”, which is the little box where you need to type in a word or number.  This is designed to hinder the automated spam-bots.  CAPTCHA is an acronym for “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart”, a great acronym.
After five days of using the captcha, I have received no new spam and weeks later still none.   However this won’t stop any manual spamming, so that will be the next thing to wait for.   It’s interesting to see how much unproductive technical energy is being expended out there in cyberspace.

Subscribing Spam

The next thing I noticed was that my subscriber list would grow enourmoulsy.  These new subscribers were all pending, meaning they did not confirm their subscription via a return email.  So it seems some bot is creating accounts, possibly sending out request-for-confirmation emails to people who never signed up. For a while I shut off the subscribe box, but recently re-started it to see if it continues.

Conclusion

What’s the reason for this specific spam that I am getting?  I understand it’s not for virus or malware purposes but part of search engine optimization (SEO).  Google search will rank websites higher on the search page if that site has many other websites linking (pointing) back to it.   So creating web links for a website on various people’s blogs will improve that site’s rank.
I also heard that if Google detects numerous phony links on my website, they will downgrade me as punishment. Unfortunately there are lots of bots and spiders crawling around the web looking for things to attack.
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31. Meetups and Mining Millennials

mining millenials
Over the last year I have had many encounters with the Toronto tech start-up community.  I have noticed some similarities with the junior mining industry but some differences also.
The tech start-up model is similar to the junior mining business model as it relates to early stage funding followed by additional financing rounds.  One obvious difference is that mining mainly uses the public financing route (IPO’s) while the tech industry relies on private equity venture capital (VC’s).
There are also some less obvious differences.
Generally the tech industry is young, vibrant, technology-savvy, and applies the latest in social technology to collaborate.  The mining industry seems to be lagging behind on many of these aspects.
The following article will describe a few of my observations. As you read through this, ask yourself “Should the mining industry be doing these things?”

Tech Meetups and Networking

My first experience with the tech industry was associated with the many after-hours networking meetings called “meetups”.  They are held weeknights from 6 to 9 pm  and consist of guest speakers, expert panels, and for general networking purposes.   Often guest speakers will describe their learnings in starting new companies and failures they had along the way.
The meetups may also provide “how-to” advice for techniques like Google Analytics, Facebook advertising, Google Adwords, email marketing, etc.).
Attending these meetups is usually free.  They are typically held after hours at different tech company offices and they often provide free beer and pizza. One can see the entire industry working together for the betterment of the industry.

How to Organize Meetups

Scheduling of meetups is done via the online software platforms Meetup or eventbrite.  Both of  these work well for announcing the meeting notice and tracking signups and attendees.
By the way, meetups are not only tech-related; they are also held for interest groups for hiking, theatre, writing, yoga, business marketing, etc.  The platforms provide a good way to manage communities.  Unfortunately here in Toronto there are no geology or mining related meetups so the mining industry may be missing out on a good way to build a more collaborative community.
The mining industry does have some local meetings, as far as I know there are mainly three after-hour mining events.  The CIM has a monthly luncheon with a cost of $50-$65 (not exactly inclusive to everybody).   There is a Toronto Geological Discussion Group that holds monthly meetings and seems to be comprised of the older geologist demographic.  The third event is Mining 4 Beer, which a small group that meets intermittently at a local bar.  These few events limit the amount of buzz for those working in the mining industry.  There are a lot of mining companies here with a lot of mining people but not a lot of vibrancy.

Where to hold an event

Most of the tech meetups are held in local tech offices.  These offices are great. They have an open concept, pool tables, ping pong, video games, fully stocked kitchen. Who wouldn’t want to work there?
The last time I was in the offices of a large engineering firm I felt like a lab rat in a cubical maze.   I’m not saying engineering offices can switch to a tech office layout, but more enjoyment of the office environment might help draw more people to the mining industry.
Perhaps it’s easier to have a positive work attitude when money is being thrown at you (as is happening in the tech world) rather than having to scratch and claw for funds like mining must do right now.   However I suggest if one wants more smart young people to come into the industry then one needs to adapt.  This means more than just buying the latest 3D geological software.  It means creating an environment that people want to work in.
In the late 1990’s I was working in the Diavik  engineering office in Calgary.  They provided a unique office layout whereby everyone had an “office” but no front wall on the office so you couldn’t shut yourself in.  There were numerous map layout tables scattered throughout the office to purposely foster discussion among the team.
A similar type philosophy is used by Apple in their office layout design where even the kitchen placement has a purpose.  People should mingle and run into one another to promote conversation.  Discussion is good. Camping out in an office is not good.

Keep it short and to the point

Another thing I noticed with the tech industry is that when start-up tech companies are given an opportunity to tell their story, typically they only have 5 to 10 minutes to pitch.  No long winded thirty page PowerPoint presentation to explain what they are doing.
The tech industry is also big on the “elevator pitch”, a one minute verbal summary of what they are doing.  The tech people are taught to be concise.  If you can’t explain it in plain language in one minute then it’s too complicated.
For comparison, many mining investor presentations can be long, highly technical, and tailored to other technical people and not the average person.   One must ask who is the real target audience for those presentations?

Communication methods

The tech industry relies a lot on remote workers.   They might be overseas or spread around Canada. For communication and collaboration, they use various online systems such as Slack, Google Hangout, Trello.  No more  long email threads with five people cc’d on each email.   Slack uses a chatting approach, similar to text messaging, which makes it easier to follow the conversation and share files.
Can the mining industry be taught to use something new like Slack?  I don’t see a problem with that as long as one honestly wants to learn it. It’s really not that complicated.
For interest, another blog provides some more discussion on online collaboration software “Online Collaboration and Management Tools“.

Conclusion

The bottom line is that I can see a great difference in the attitude and atmosphere in the tech industry compared to the mining industry.  The junior mining game was the precursor for the tech start-up industry but has not kept pace with evolving work techniques.
As senior personnel retire from mining, the loss of this mining experience will be felt.  However the new ideas that may follow could be a positive outcome.
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29. New Mining Software and 43-101 Legal Issues

43-101 issues
NI 43-101 puts a fair amount of legal liability on the Qualified Person preparing a resource or reserve estimate.  The QP is to stand behind the accuracy of their work and take legal responsibility for it.
Every so often some new mining software comes along and I often wonder what are the risks in using it? Some examples of new mining software that I have heard about (but not personally used) nor have seen mentioned in any 43-101 studies are SimSched, the ThreeDify’s software packages, and Bentley.

Is the software doing everything correctly?

Given that as a QP I am legally responsible for my work, I am  bit apprehensive about how I can be assured the new software will provide reliable and accurate results for which I accept legal liability.  The last thing I would want to do is issue a public technical report which is found to be in error due to a software bug.
Irrespective of 43-101, if you are working at a mining operation the last thing you want to do is present management with an incorrect reserve, pit design, or production plan.
If you are a consultant, how agreeable will your client be when you tell him that his study was done using a novel software package and not one of the industry standard packages?
I recall working with a major mining company and there was a reluctance to adopt any new software that was unproven and not an industry standard.  The company had no issue with buying the software nor paying the annual maintenance fees for the license. the concern was the risk in using it.

What if you have a limited budget?

How do you feel about new software if you are a mining company or consultant with a limited budget?   The new software may be cheaper, may appear to be be great, and may be a technological improvement all at a lower cost.  However the software risk still remains.   There is no guarantee that all software output is correct simply because it comes from a computer.
As a QP, I suggest the onus is on the software developers to demonstrate that they can produce reliable and comparable results under all conditions.  They need to convince future users that their software is accurate.
Perhaps over time the new software will gain wider adoption.  We may see more 43-101 reports that use it and hence it will get more overall acceptance.
When developing a new market for new software is it a better to foster more consultant adoption or more mining company adoption?
Will mining companies use the software if their consultants are using it, or will consultants use it if more companies adopt it?  It’s an interesting discussion that new software vendors must deal with in trying to grow their market share.
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21. 3D Printing – A Simple Idea

3D models
We hear more and more about 3D printing and what it is able to do. 3D printers have come down in price and can be bought for under $500.   Here is an example of using a 3D printer from a recent project that I consulted on.
The open pit was going to be located in hilly terrain, and issues related to haul road access, waste dump sites, and leach pad location were all important.   The client used a 3D printer to create a small desktop model of the terrain, which was given to each of the consulting firms.
The photo below shows the scale of the model.
3D printed topographyMembers of the engineering team were each given their own 3D model to take back to their offices.  Putting one of these on your desk helps with familiarity of the overall site and allows you to better understand the siting and drainage issues.
Topographic maps may give data on actual elevations and distances, but even a small 3D model gives you a feel for the site.    The model shown above was for undisturbed topography but one could easily print off a similar model once the final pit and dump design is done.
With the current three-dimensional printing capabilities, creating simple 3D topographic models for the engineering team is feasible and I recommend doing so.
At the same time provide the Owner’s team with their own models, helping them understand the site issues that must be dealt with.
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10. Google Earth – Keep it On Hand

Mining studies
In a previous article (3. Site Visit – What Is the Purpose?) I briefly discussed the requirements for a site visit to be completed by one or more Qualified Persons (“QP”) in a 43-101 compliant study.    Unfortunately the entire study team cannot participate in a site visit; however the next best thing may be Google Earth.

Lets fly around with Google Earth

Gather your team around their computers and fire up screen sharing software like Glance, GoToMeeting, Skype, or Cisco Webex.   Here are some of the things your group can do with Google Earth:
  • It can be used to fly-around the project site examining the topography.
  • It can be used to view regional features, regional facilities, land access routes, and existing infrastructure.
  • It  has the capability to measure distances, either in a straight line or along a zigzag path.
  • It provides the capability to view historical aerial photos (if they exist) to show how the project area might have changed over time.
  • It can import GPS tracks and survey waypoints.  If a member of the study team has visited the site with a GPS, they can illustrate their route and their observations.
My recommendation is to always have a Google Earth session with your engineering team to examine the project site and the regional infrastructure.
A group session like this ensures that everyone sees and hears the same thing. It’s like taking a helicopter tour of the site with your entire study team at once!   A “helicopter tour” would be a good agenda item at the very first kickoff meeting.
Another option is to check the aerial photos and Bird’s Eye views on the Bing Maps website (www.bing.com/maps).  Sometimes those images will be different than what you will find in Google Maps or Google Earth.
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